Hanukkah, the Festival of Lights, and a game called ‘dreidel’

This is part of an occasional series on how Americans celebrate religious holidays. Other articles looked at Rosh Hashanah and Yom KippurDiwali, and Christmas at the White House.

Once a year, Jewish children all over the world play a game of chance called “dreidel” that uses four-sided spinning tops inscribed with Hebrew letters. The game is played during Hanukkah and commemorates a miraculous event that took place over 2,000 years ago in Jerusalem.

The game, like Hanukkah itself, recalls the victory of a small band of determined Jewish fighters, led by Judah Maccabee, over an army of invaders. After driving their enemies from the city of Jerusalem, the Jews were then able to rededicate their holy temple by lighting its menorah — a branched candelabrum.

Parents with child on lap lighting menorah (Tony Bock/Toronto Star/Getty Images)
A family lights a menorah, one candle represents each night of Hanukkah. (© Tony Bock/Toronto Star/Getty Images)

According to tradition, the Jewish faithful could find only a one-day supply of ceremonial oil to light the menorah, yet the flames lasted for eight days until they could produce more. This was viewed as a miracle, and to this day Jews memorialize the event by lighting the menorah in their homes, saying special prayers, singing songs and preparing traditional meals.

Celebrants often prepare fried foods as a symbol of the legend of the oil that lasted eight days — especially latkes (potato pancakes) and sufganya, a jelly-filled doughnut.

Children playing the game dreidel in Israel sing the Hebrew words “Nes gadol haya po,” meaning “a great miracle occurred here.” In the United States and in Jewish homes outside of Israel, the children say, “Nes gadol haya sham,” meaning “a great miracle occurred there.”

Across the United States, synagogues hold latke dinners and retell the story of Hanukkah. And on the grounds of the White House in Washington each year, the National Menorah Lighting Ceremony includes musical performances, hot latkes and doughnuts.

Ivanka Trump, Jared Kushner holding Theodore Kushner (© Alex Brandon/AP Images)
Ivanka Trump, assistant to President Trump, and her husband, White House Senior Adviser Jared Kushner holding son Theodore Kushner, at a Hanukkah reception in the White House in 2017. (© Alex Brandon/AP Images)

“Hanukkah is a time for Jewish families around the world to celebrate the miracles of the past and promises of the future,” President Trump said December 7, 2017, at a Hanukkah reception in the White House. “We are proud to stand with the people of Israel and to renew our enduring bond.”

Worldwide, Hanukkah is a joyful custom that calls on the faithful to remember and celebrate a miraculous occurrence in Jewish history. The holiday is not one of the High Holy Days in the Jewish calendar marked by self-reflection and atonement: Rosh Hashanah (Jewish New Year) and Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement).

The dates of Hanukkah vary based on the Jewish calendar. This year, Hanukkah begins in the evening of December 22 and ends in the evening of December 30.

A version of this story was originally published on December 13, 2017.