Esta série Conversações Diárias é sobre uma família em viagem pelos 50 estados dos EUA. Junte-se a eles à medida que vão conhecendo as atividades de lazer e a história de cada lugar. Essas conversas são para alunos de inglês de nível intermediário ou superior.

Se você preferir acompanhar a lição apenas em inglês, clique aqui.

Neste diálogo, a família planeja uma viagem para Gettysburg, na Pensilvânia, um lugar importante na história da Guerra de Secessão dos EUA.

Paul: I know that you want to go to Philadelphia, but first we’re going to spend some time in Gettysburg. It’s an important historical place.

Gina: Absolutely. The U.S. might be different today if the Confederate States Army had won the Battle of Gettysburg during the Civil War.

Claudine: Why was that battle so important?

Paul: It was a turning point in the war. The Confederate Army tried to invade the North, but the Union Army won the battle. The Confederate Army retreated.

Gina: And shortly after the Union won the battle, President Lincoln gave his Gettysburg Address.

Paul: And in his speech, he reminded people of the Founding Fathers’ idea that “all men are created equal.”

Claudine: I believe that. All men and women deserve the same freedoms and rights. I think I’m going to like Gettysburg.

Now let’s review the vocabulary.

Gettysburg is an area in the state of Pennsylvania. It is the site of the Battle of Gettysburg, one of the largest battles of the American Civil War.

A Confederate [confederado] was a soldier or person who supported the Confederacy during the Civil War in the United States. The Confederacy (or The Confederate States of America) consisted of states in the southern region of the U.S. The Confederacy declared its secession (secession: the act of separating from a nation) from the U.S. following the election of President Lincoln. President Lincoln opposed the expansion of slavery (and later ended slavery), which the Confederacy did not agree with. The U.S. government rejected the Confederacy’s secession.

The Battle of Gettysburg [Batalha de Gettysburg] was a three-day battle (July 1–3, 1863) during the American Civil War. It had the largest number of casualties (casualties: the people who are killed or injured) in the entire war.

A turning point [divisor de águas] is a time when an important change takes place.

In a battle, to retreat [recuar] is to move away from the opposing side.

The American Civil War (or, simply the Civil War) [Guerra Civil Americana; Guerra de Secessão dos EUA] was a war between the Confederacy (sometimes called the South) [Confederação] and the Union (sometimes called the North) [União]. The war was fought from 1861 to 1865 to decide if the Confederacy would become independent. After four years of fighting, the Confederacy lost and slavery was abolished (abolished: officially ended).

President Abraham Lincoln was the 16th president of the United States. He served from 1861 until he was killed in April 1865. Lincoln led the U.S. through the Civil War, abolished slavery in the U.S., and strengthened the government.

The Gettysburg Address [Discurso de Gettysburg] was a speech given by President Lincoln a few months after the Battle of Gettysburg. In his speech, he reminded the audience of the Founding Fathers’ ideas for the future.

The Founding Fathers [fundadores] refers to some of the individuals of the first U.S. colonies who helped separate from the rule of the British government, leading to the formation of the United States. A few key Founding Fathers include Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin and George Washington.

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